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THEORY X

Theory X assumes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this encourages an authoritarian style of management. Theory X-oriented organisations are usually top-heavy, with managers and supervisors required at every step to control workers. McGregor recognised that X-Type workers are in fact usually the minority, and yet in mass organisations, such as large-scale production environment, Theory X management may be required and can be unavoidable.

OD ESSENCE:
The use of Theory X is necessary for managers when dealing with employees who are unable and unwilling or underperforming.